one sub-type: Long Bets
Robin Hanson says : Our policy-makers and media rely too much on the "Expert" advice of a self-interested insider's club of pundits and big-shot academics. These pundits are rewarded too much for telling good stories, and for supporting each other, rather than for being "right". Instead, let us create betting markets on most controversial questions, and treat the current market odds as our best expert consensus.
- see his Futarchy application, which is even more recent
Lots of other publications: http://hanson.gmu.edu/ifpubs.html
The Earth Web Book points out the importance of writing "contracts" (stating a belief in a precise and "settle-able" way) to having functioning markets.
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